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September 2000

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Genomes and Eugenics

By Dave McGowan

August 2000

On June 26th of this year, the successful completion of the mapping of the human genome was triumphantly announced. The media were nearly universal in heaping praise on this alleged scientific milestone. This was just as true for the 'progressive' press as it was for the more mainstream media outlets. For instance, the World Socialist Web Site - one of the most uncompromisingly leftist of news sources - gushed that:

"The publication of the rough draft of the completed sequence of the human genome on June 26 was an outstanding scientific achievement, the outcome of an international collaboration spanning a decade and involving hundreds of scientists. The researchers used the most advanced sequencing machines and analyzed the resulting data with the aid of powerful computers ...

"The elaboration of the human genome sequence is a major step in demystifying the evolution of the human species and the workings of the human body. Aided by technology, such scientific discoveries puncture the clouds of superstition that surround human existence and weaken the grip of religion over the minds of men and women."

 

Seemingly the only critical voice among the mindless back-slappers of the U.S. media belonged to Robert Lederman, columnist for the Greenwich Village Gazette. In an insightful column featured on The Konformist web site, Lederman noted that:

"Probably the single greatest irony in the human genome issue is the idea being marketed to the public that this scientific advance will lead to the average person enjoying a much longer and healthier life. In light of governmental resistance to preventing corporate pollution of the environment, developing renewable sources of energy, banning the use of toxic chemicals and insecticides or protecting the food supply from contamination, can we really expect that this technology will be used to extend human life generally?

"Politicians claim there is an imminent crisis facing the social security system right now. How much worse will that crisis be if tens of millions of Americans who might otherwise have died in their sixties and seventies from chronic disease live into their nineties and beyond? Be assured that those in control have no intention of allowing this to happen.

"The far likelier scenario is that for the very wealthy there will indeed be new and miraculous medical treatments to prolong and enhance life. For the vast majority however, this new technology will only be used to further limit their freedom and privacy while creating a caste system based on genetics that fundamentally changes the way society is structured."

 

Lederman's concerns are well founded. What the rest of the media seem to have overlooked, deliberately or out of ignorance, is that the Human Genome Project did not arise in a vacuum. Rather, it is but the latest step in a 'scientific' progression spanning at least the last 150 years. The aforementioned World Socialist Web Site appeared to acknowledge this in their coverage of the much-heralded event:

"In 1838 Matthias Jakob Schleiden and Theodor Schwann discovered the cell as the fundamental unit of life. In 1859 Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species, which elaborated a mechanism of evolution and set a coherent framework for all the biological sciences. In 1865 the Austrian monk Gregor Mendel developed the foundations of modern genetics. T. H. Morgan in 1910 determined that genes are organised along chromosomes. In 1942 researchers established that genes are made of DNA, a chemical found in the cell nucleus. In 1953, James Watson and Francis Crick elaborated the structure of DNA. In 1973 Stanley Cohen and Herbert Brown invented genetic engineering by transplanting a gene between bacteria, and in 1990 the Human Genome Project began."

 

The only problem with this capsule history of the events leading up to the cracking of the genetic code is that it is woefully incomplete. So incomplete, in fact, that it completely obscures the goals being pursued by those who would claim to be working for the betterment of human civilization. This is to be expected of course when the coverage is coming from the corporate mass-media, though one expects a little better from the 'alternative' press. To see just how far off the mark this historical narrative actually is, it is instructive to review a few key events that do not appear in the timeline above.

In 1869, British psychologist Francis Galton, a cousin of Charles Darwin, published the first major document of the modern eugenics movement - Hereditary Genius - in which he made the observation that: "The average intellectual standard of the negro is some two grades below our own." Galton proposed that a system of arranged marriages between men of distinction and women of wealth would ultimately yield a 'gifted' race. He based this theory on the observation that the most prominent members of British society tended to also have prominent parents (no shit, Frank? How'd you ever figure that out?). Two years later, the exalted Charles Darwin published Descent of Man - his follow-up to Origin of Species - in which he frequently quoted from his cousin's racist screed.

In 1875, "coolies, convicts, and prostitutes" were declared "undesirable" aliens and excluded by newly drafted laws from immigrating to the shores of America. The next year, John Harvey Kellogg became the superintendent of the Western Health Reform Institute, changing its name to the Battle Creek Sanitarium. Under Kellogg's directorship, the sanitarium began experimenting with "health foods," closely paralleling the Lebens reform movement in Germany. Lebens reform sanitariums promoted a back-to-nature ideology that espoused health foods, vegetarianism, abstention from alcohol and tobacco, and homeopathy. Kellogg would remain at Battle Creek as director until 1943, a span of sixty-seven years.

In 1882, "lunatics and idiots" joined "coolies, convicts, and prostitutes" on the list of unwanted immigrants, though numerous lunatics and idiots already living here were allowed to stay and retain their positions within the U.S. government. The following year, Galton published his next manifesto - Human Faculty - in which he introduced the world to the term "eugenics." In 1895, Dr. Alfred Ploetz- an esteemed German eugenics researcher - published The Excellence of Our Race and the Protection of the Weak, which not surprisingly was far more concerned with the extermination of the weak than with their protection.

Six years later, in 1901, John D. Rockefeller founded the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, which quickly became a funding conduit for eugenics research. Two years later, the list of undesirable immigrants became a little longer as "epileptics and insane persons" were added. The next year, The Carnegie Institution of Washington established a research center under the directorship of Harvard-educated eugenicist Charles Benedict Davenport, with additional funding from Mary Harriman - the widow of railroad magnate Edward H. Harriman. Meanwhile, Davenport's counterpart in Germany - Dr. Ploetz - founded the German Society for Racial Hygiene and a 'scientific' journal - the Archive for Racial and Social Biology. Davenport would serve as the director of genetics for the Station for Experimental Evolution at Cold Springs Harbor in Long Island, New York until 1934.

In 1906, the city of San Francisco ordered the segregation of all Japanese, Chinese, and Korean children in a separate school, where they could be kept a safe distance from the genetically superior white children. Elsewhere in the world, Cyril Burt - a future leading light of the eugenics movement - graduated from Oxford University and traveled to Germany to study for the next two years. The next year, the state of Indiana passed the world's first compulsory sterilization laws, applicable to all "confirmed criminals, idiots, rapists and imbeciles" in state institutions. Meanwhile, "imbeciles and feeble-minded persons" were added to the still growing list of persons excluded under U.S. immigration laws. It obviously wasn't a good year for imbeciles.

1910 proved to be a busy year for the eugenics crowd. The Harriman family financed the building of the Eugenics Record Office as a branch of London's Galton National Laboratory, with additional financial assistance coming from John D. Rockefeller; Davenport was appointed director. This same year, reputed anti-fascist Winston Churchill was appointed Home Secretary of the UK (the British equivalent of Secretary of State), and secretly proposed the sterilization of 100,000 "mental degenerates." Cyril Burt busied himself with revising U.S. IQ tests for use in the UK, while John Kellogg began delivering speeches on "race degeneracy."

The next year, Davenport published Heredity in Relation to Eugenics. In the UK, Galton died and a Eugenics Chair was established at the University of London as per his will. In 1912, the University of London hosted the First International Congress of Eugenics, presided over by Major Leonard Darwin, the son of Charles; vice-presidents prominently in attendance included Winston Churchill, Dr. Alfred Ploetz, Harvard president Charles W. Eliot, and Alexander Graham Bell. Meanwhile, eminent psychologist Henry Goddard was having a busy year: he published The Kallikak Family: A Study in the Heredity of Feeble Mindedness, and also administered IQ tests to immigrants at Ellis Island and found that 83% of Jews, 80% of Hungarians, 79% of Italians, and 87% of the Russians wanting to enter the country were feeble minded; there's no telling how many of them were coolies or imbeciles.

Professor Goddard also believed that criminals could be identified by certain physical characteristics, and that the solution was "to sterilize them, allow them to perform only lowly jobs, confine them to ghettos, discourage them from marrying outside their race, and create a pure, American, superior intelligence to control them." His ideas would later have a profound influence on Dr. David Ewen Cameron, whose CIA and Rockefeller-funded medical torture experiments in Canada would become among the most notorious of the CIA's MK-ULTRA projects.

In 1913, Rockefeller established the Rockefeller Foundation, which would serve as yet another source of funding for the eugenics movement. By this time, twelve U.S. states had compulsory sterilization laws on the books. The next year, Battle Creek, Michigan hosted the First National Congress on Race Betterment - sponsored by John Harvey Kellogg - which proposed that 5.76 million Americans be sterilized. Eugenics was by now being taught at Universities around the country, including Harvard, Columbia, Cornell, Brown, Wisconsin, Northwestern, and Clark. In 1915, Michigan hosted the Second National Conference on Race Betterment, again sponsored by John Harvey Kellogg.

The next year, Stanford University professor of psychology Lewis M. Terman published the Stanford-Binet IQ tests, while declaring that: "If we would preserve our state for a class of people worthy to possess it, we would prevent, as far as possible, the propagation of mental degenerates." In 1920, Alfred Hoche and Karl Binding published The Release of the Destruction of Life Devoid of Value, advocating "euthanasia" for mentally defective and mentally ill persons. By this time, twenty-four other states had joined Indiana in passing compulsory sterilization laws.

In 1921, New York hosted the Second International Congress of Eugenics, sponsored by a committee that included Herbert Hoover and the presidents of Clark University, Smith College and the Carnegie Institution. Also this year, president Warren G. Harding approved the Immigration Restriction Act, establishing a quota system, and Margaret Sanger published an article entitled "The Eugenic Value of Birth Control Propaganda" in the journal Birth Control Review. Sanger was concerned that "the fertility of the feeble-minded, the mentally defective, the poverty-stricken classes, should not be held up for emulation to the mentally and physically fit though less fertile parents of the educated and well-to-do classes. On the contrary, the most urgent problem today is how to limit and discourage the over fertility of the mentally and physically defective ..."

The next year, H. H. Laughlin published the "Model Eugenical Sterilization Law," declaring all of the following categories of persons as being subject to mandatory sterilization: feeble-minded; insane; criminalistic; epileptic; inebriate; diseased; blind and seriously vision impaired; deformed and crippled; and dependent (orphans, homeless persons, tramps, and paupers). This law would serve as the blueprint for several U.S. state sterilization laws as well as for Nazi Germany's infamous 1933 eugenics law.

In 1923, native fascist Henry Ford published The International Jew; The World's Foremost Problem, the title of which pretty much speaks for itself. Elsewhere in the country, Carl Brigham - a key figure in the development of IQ tests and the driving force behind the SAT - published The Study of American Intelligence, declaring that: "our figures, then, would rather tend to disprove the popular belief that the Jew is intelligent," and "The decline of American intelligence will be more rapid than the decline of the intelligence of European national groups owing to the presence here of the Negro." In Germany, Adolf Hitler allegedly dictated - from a jail cell - the first draft of the virulently racist and anti-Semitic Mein Kampf, which singled out Henry Ford for praise.

The following year, the Johnson-Reed act (aka the Immigration Act of 1924) eliminated Asian immigration and set stringent quotas on Southern and Eastern European immigration. In 1925, U.S. Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes - writing the majority opinion in Buck v. Bell - stated: "It is better for all the world, if instead of waiting to execute degenerate offspring for crime or to let them starve for their imbecility, society can prevent those who are manifestly unfit from continuing their kind," language that closely mirrored that of Hitler's Mein Kampf. In the UK this year, Cyril Burt - who specialized in twin studies (can you say Josef Mengele?) and who would later become one of the founding fathers of Mensa - published The Young Delinquent.

In 1926, The American Eugenics Society was founded on the proposition that the wealth and social position of the upper classes was justified by their superior genetic endowment. Two years later, Battle Creek, Michigan hosted the Third National Conference on Race Betterment, once again sponsored by John Harvey Kellogg. In 1930, the director of the Department of Heredity at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Genealogy and Demography - Dr. Ernst Rudin - visited the United States, where he was warmly received. Rudin walked away with a large grant from the Rockefeller Foundation to finance his research, which would occupy an entire floor at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute. Elsewhere, W. K. Kellogg established the W. K. Kellogg Foundation to provide funding for efforts at "social improvement."

By 1931, twenty-seven U.S. states had sterilization laws, and John Kellogg had opened the Miami-Battle Creek Sanitarium in Miami Springs, Florida with himself appointed as medical director. This year also saw an indeterminate number of Puerto Ricans deliberately infected with cancer by the Rockefeller Institute, killing thirteen. Pathologist Cornelius Rhoades, who ran the study, would later be placed in charge of two chemical warfare projects and granted a seat on the Atomic Energy Commission.

1932 saw New York's American Museum of Natural History host the Third International Congress of Eugenics, at which the sterilization of fourteen million Americans was called for. The gathering was dedicated to Mary Harriman, the mother of Averell Harriman - partner at the Wall Street powerhouse Brown Brothers/Harriman along with Prescott Bush and Herbert Walker. The Hamburg-Amerika Shipping Line - a wholly owned subsidiary of Brown Brothers/Harriman that would in 1942 be seized by the U.S. Alien Property Custodian under authority of the Trading with the Enemy Act - provided transportation to America for a sizable number of Nazis to attend the conference. Included among them was Dr. Rudin, who was unanimously elected president of the International Federation of Eugenics Societies.

The following year, Hitler enacted the Law for the Prevention of Hereditary Diseases in Posterity, drafted by Dr. Rudin and patterned directly after H. H. Laughlin's 1922 model. Also in 1933, Germany's Journal of Psychotherapy - edited by fascist psychiatrist Carl Jung - published an article by Dr. M. H. Goering (a cousin of Hermann), urging psychotherapists to make "a serious scientific study of Adolf Hitler's fundamental work Mein Kampf, and to recognize it as a basic work."

In 1935, Nazi Germany instituted the Law for the Protection of the Genetic Health of the German People, which mandated medical examinations prior to marriage. Also begun this year was a selective human breeding program known as Lebensborn - under the direction of Hitler's rabidly fascist SS Chief, Heinrich Himmler - which all SS men were obligated to join. By 1946, some 11,000 of 'Hitler's Children' would be created on breeding farms. In nearby England, Cyril Burt published The Subnormal Mind.

On the distant shores of America, Dr. Alexis Carrel - a Nobel laureate and a close associate of native fascist and anti-Semite Charles Augustus Lindbergh - published Man, the Unknown, declaring: "There remains the unsolved problem of the immense number of defectives and criminals. They are an enormous burden for the part of the population that has remained normal. In Germany, the government has taken energetic measures against the multiplication of inferior types, the insane and criminals. Perhaps prisons should be abolished. They could be replaced by smaller and less expensive institutions. The conditioning of petty criminals with the whip, or some more scientific procedure, followed by a short stay in hospital, would probably suffice to insure order. Those who have [committed more serious crimes] should be humanely and economically disposed of in small euthanasia institutions supplied with proper gasses. A similar treatment could be advantageously applied to the insane, guilty of criminal acts. Modern society should not hesitate to organize itself with reference to the normal individual."

In 1937, Cyril Burt published yet another eugenically minded tome, which he titled The Backward Child. This year was also notable for the establishment of the Pioneer Fund, yet another thinly veiled cover for the funding of eugenics research. As late as 1989, the organization would state in its charter that its express purpose was to finance "study into the problems of human race betterment."

With the outbreak of World War II, the genocidal agenda behind the rapidly proliferating eugenics foundations was revealed to the world, and the movement had to temporarily retreat to the fetid swamps and sewers from which it had emerged. It wasn't dead, however, but was merely "forced to reinvent itself under various fronts," as columnist Robert Lederer has noted. After the war, psychiatrist Edwin Katzen-ellenbogen - a former member of the faculty at Harvard - was convicted of war crimes that he had committed as a 'doctor' at Buchenwald concentration camp; during his trial in Dachau, he proudly testified that he had drafted the sterilization law for the governor of New Jersey.

In 1948, Mensa was formed- the first international organization for the intellectually 'gifted.' Its first president was preeminent eugenicist Cyril Burt, who had been named the president of the British Psychological Society in 1942 and had become the first psychologist to be knighted in 1946. Another founding father was Victor Serebriakoff, a White Russian recruited by British and American intelligence services, who was credited with greatly expanding membership in the organization, instituting the IQ test as a prerequisite of membership, and establishing American Mensa.

The next year, the Atomic Energy Commission and the Quaker Oats company fed a group of 'retarded' boys in Massachusetts radioactive cereal; John Kellogg would have been proud. In 1950, Cyril Burt published the results of some of his twin studies, purportedly showing data that supported his eugenics views. His studies claimed to prove that poverty was due to the intellectual inferiority of the working class. In 1952, John Foster Dulles - who along with brother Allen had been an attorney for Brown Brothers/Harriman and numerous other Nazi enterprises (including I. G. Farben), as well as being a long-time intelligence asset - established the Population Council in conjunction with John D. Rockefeller III. Tens of millions of dollars of Rockefeller grant money were pumped in as the American Eugenics Society moved its headquarters into the offices of - and assumed the name of - the newly created Population Council.

By 1967, Nobel prize winner William Shockley was rewriting history with his conclusion that: "The lesson to be drawn from Nazi history is the value of free speech, not that eugenics is intolerable." Also this year, three psychosurgeons - Vernon H. Marks, Frank R. Ervin, and William H. Sweet - published a letter in the Journal of the American Medical Association in which they theorized that brain disease was responsible for rising levels of urban violence and the black uprisings that were rocking America's cities. The National Institute of Mental Health promptly awarded the trio $500,000 to investigate the use of psychosurgery on violence prone individuals. It bears mentioning here that psychosurgery, better known as lobotomy, was a procedure that was developed in fascist Portugal in the 1930's as a means of social control. ECT, otherwise known as electroconvulsive or shock therapy, was developed around the same time - and for the same reason - in fascist Italy. Both were quickly imported to America where they were warmly embraced by U.S. psychiatrists.

1972 found Shockley delivering an address before the American Psychological Association in which he called for a program in which welfare recipients would be paid $1,000 for each IQ point below 100 if they would submit to voluntary sterilization. In 1976, Cyril Burt's research was denounced and declared a fraud. London's Sunday Times reported that his two 'field investigators' and 'co-authors' were complete fabrications; Burt himself had authored articles for fifteen years under assumed names praising his own work and attacking his critics. He was posthumously declared guilty of fraud by the British Psychological Society.

In 1978, another eugenically minded foundation - the Manhattan Institute - was founded by future CIA Director William Casey, who sixteen years prior had co-founded another New York City 'think tank' with Prescott Bush. The primary corporate sponsor was the Rockefeller-controlled Chase Manhattan Bank; others included Citicorp, Time Warner, Proctor & Gamble, Bristol-Meyers, Squibb, CIGNA and Lilly. The next year, the Repository for Germinal Choice was set up in Escondido, California to make available the sperm of Nobel prize winners and other 'intelligent' people for selective breeding. Ads were run in Mensa publications and Shockley became one of the first donors.

By 1980, thirty U.S. states had sterilization laws on the books. Two years later, the first of the new breed of Hitler's Children was spawned from sperm obtained from the Repository for Germinal Choice. In 1989, George Bush - the son of Prescott Bush and the grandson of Herbert Walker - became the 41st president of the United States. The very next year, the Human Genome Project was begun at Cold Springs Harbor Laboratory on Long Island, New York.

In 1992, the impeccably pedigreed Pamela Churchill Harriman held a fund raiser at her Middleburg, Virginia estate and collected three million dollars for the campaign of Bill Clinton, born William Jefferson Blythe IV. The next year, Rhodes scholar and Oxford alumnus Bill Clinton became the 42nd president, and Pamela Harriman became his Ambassador to France. The next year, a new manifesto for the modern-day eugenics crowd was published: The Bell Curve. The book was sponsored by the Pioneer Fund, a major supporter and source of funding for the Manhattan Institute; the Institute itself held a luncheon to honor the book.

And so it goes as the eugenics movement continues to flourish under cover of scientific jargon. That the Human Genome Project (HGP) is in fact yet another front for the eugenics movement can be easily discerned from a visit to the program's web site. There you will find that the hauntingly familiar goals of the project include "earlier detection of genetic predisposition to disease" and "reduc(ing) the likelihood of heritable mutations." In other words, one goal is the systematic elimination of all the 'bad' genes that have slipped into the national pool.

Another goal of the project is the creation of "pharmacogenomics 'custom drugs'." Translated into English, this means drugs that are specifically tailored to differentially affect various genetic (racial) types; drugs, that is, that could easily be wielded as ethnically specific biowarfare agents. The development of such weapons has been an explicit goal of the U.S. military for at least a quarter-century. In 1975, an American military manual candidly noted that: "It is theoretically possible to develop so-called 'ethnic chemical weapons,' which would be designed to exploit naturally occurring differences in vulnerability among specific population groups. Thus, such a weapon would be capable of incapacitating or killing a selected enemy population to a significantly greater extent than the population of friendly forces."

Strangely enough, in the years since those words were written "at least 30 previously unknown disease agents have been identified," according to our very own Central Intelligence Agency. Many of these - including AIDS, Ebola, and the Four Corners Virus - without question show a distinct preference for certain ethnic groups that have long been targets of depopulation campaigns. Interestingly, the HGP touts as another of its benefits the potential for "protection from biological and chemical warfare." Of course, as the U.S. government itself has acknowledged on numerous occasions, research into the protection from biowarfare requires concomitant research into the conductance of biowarfare; the two are, in practice, inseparable.

Meanwhile, Mensa - which claims disingenuously to hold no opinions and promote no agenda - continues by all appearances to function as an intelligence front, including serving at times as a mouthpiece for the eugenics movement. One of the organization's SIG's (Special Interest Groups) is titled - simply enough - Eugenics, and the pages of various Mensa publications are known to this day to host 'intellectual' discussions of the benefits of eugenics policies. Perhaps nowhere is the true agenda of the organization more readily apparent than in the list of 'intellectual links' posted on the website of the Los Angeles chapter. Just for fun, scroll through the list and see how many of the links lead to CIA fronts, as well as to the agency itself. My personal favorite? The "CIA Kid's Page" as a resource for children. And so it goes.

"Throughout the West, the erosion of older structures of class and authority, and the claims and challenges of new classes and ethnic groups, stimulated the work of the phrenologists, the testers of intelligence, the eugenicists, and the analysts of deviance - Lombroso, Binet, Madison Grant, and, in the first half of the twentieth century, Cyril Burt, Edward L. Thorndike, H. M. Goddard, Lewis M. Terman, and Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck; but it was in America - necessarily in America, that most democratic, 'classless,' and ethnically pluralistic society - where they became most influential."

Peter Schrag Mind Control, Pantheon, 1978

 

[The author of this piece wishes it known that he is of white Europeanancestry and - according to his driver's license - is blessed with blond hair and blue eyes. He has no physical deformities and is even a member of Mensa. He is, in other words, of the finest Aryan genetic stock.]

 

References:

 

Chaiken, Anton and Webster Tarpley

George Bush: An Unauthorized Biography

http://www.tarpley.net/bushb.htm

 

Chase, Allan

The Legacy of Malthus: The Social Costs of the New Scientific Racism, University of Illinois Press, 1980

 

Chorover, Stephan L.

From Genesis to Genocide, MIT Press, 1983

 

Gaglioti, Frank

"The Human Genome Project: Science, Society and Superstition,"

The World Socialist Web Site

 

Gannon, John C. (Chairman, National Intelligence Council)

"The Global Infectious Disease Threat and Its Implications for the United States,"January 2000

 

Harris, Robert and Jeremy Paxman

A Higher Form of Killing, Hilland Wang, 1982

 

Lapon, Lenny

Mass Murderers in White Coats, Psychiatric Genocide Research Institute, 1986

 

Lederman, Robert

"The Human Genome Project and Eugenics," The Konformist

 

Lederman, Robert

"Giuliani, the Manhattan Institute, and Eugenics: The Ugly Truth Behind 'Quality of Life,'" The Konformist

 

Lifton, Robert Jay

The Nazi Doctors, Basic Books, 1986

 

Ogden, Christopher

"Pamela Harriman: Her Brilliant Career," Time, February 17, 1997

 

Stannard, David E.

American Holocaust, Oxford University Press, 1992

 

Thomas, Gordon

Journey Into Madness, Bantam Books, 1989

 

Vankin, Jonathan and John Whalen

The 60 Greatest Conspiracies of All Time, Citadel, 1996

 

Williams, Carol J.

"Breeding to Further the Reich," Los Angeles Times, January 21, 2000

 

L.A. Mentary, Victor Serebriakoff Memorial Issue, Volume 38, Number 3, March 2000

 

Encyclopaedia Britannica

 

E Biography

"Charles and Anne Lindbergh: Alone Together," April 2, 2000

 

The Human Genome Project Web Site

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